United Kingdom. The British prevented a second advance by the Axis forces into Egypt. However, the Axis forces were too far from their base at Tripoli in Libya to remain at El Alamein indefinitely, which led both sides to accumulate supplies for more offensives, against the constraints of time and distance. Ritchie had decided not to hold the defenses on the Egyptian border, because the defensive plan there was for infantry to hold defended localities and a strong armored force behind them to meet any attempts to penetrate or outflank the fixed defenses. Since General Ritchie had virtually no armored units left fit to fight, the infantry positions would be defeated in detail. The Mersa defense plan also included an armored reserve but in its absence Ritchie believed he could organise his infantry to cover the minefields between the defended localities to prevent Axis engineers from having undisturbed access.
First Battle of El Alamein
El Alamein - Wikipedia
As of , it had a population of 7, inhabitants. El Alamein has a war museum with collectibles from "the civil war" and other North African battles. Visitors can also go to the Italian and German military cemeteries on Tel el-Eisa Hill outside the town. The German cemetery is an ossuary, built in the style of a medieval fortress. The Italian cemetery is a mausoleum containing 5, tombs. There is also a Commonwealth war cemetery, built and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission , with graves of soldiers from various countries who fought on the Allied side.