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Phantom in breast radiotherapy

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License. Thoracic malignancies are the most common types of cancer globally 1 , 2. One of the primary treatments for this type of malignancy is radiotherapy 3. It is known that the fundamental principle of radiotherapy is to deliver an accurate therapeutic dose to the tumor tissue and avoid excessive radiation exposure to the adjacent normal tissues, thus increasing local tumor control probability TCP and decreasing normal tissue complication probability NTCP 4. Conventionally, thoracic radiotherapy is planned using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiation therapy IMRT 3. Recently, volumetric-modulated arc therapy VMAT has become a focus of studies worldwide due to its increased delivery efficiency over 3D-CRT and IMRT 5 ; however, a number of studies have reported controversial findings on the conformity of targets and the protection of healthy structures in thoracic radiotherapy 6 — 8.
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Imaging phantom

Phantom in breast radiotherapy
Phantom in breast radiotherapy
Phantom in breast radiotherapy
Phantom in breast radiotherapy
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The Alderson Radiation Therapy Phantom – Radiology Support Devices

Causes of lasting pain 2. Managing pain 3. Support if you're in pain. Some people have pain in their breast, chest, arm or armpit for months or even years after they had surgery. It can happen after any type of breast surgery , including a lumpectomy wide local excision , mastectomy, lymph node removal and breast reconstruction.
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Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

Background: Given the importance of scattered and low doses in secondary cancer caused by radiation treatment, the point dose of critical organs, which were not subjected to radiation treatment in breast cancer radiotherapy, was measured. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the peripheral dose in two techniques of breast cancer radiotherapy with two energies. Nine organs were contoured in the treatment planning system and specified on the phantom. To measure the photon dose, forty-eight thermoluminescence dosimeters MTS were positioned in special places on the above nine organs and plans were applied to Rando phantom with Elekta presice linac. To obtain approximately the same dose distribution in the clinical organ volume, a wedge was used on planes with an energy of 6 MeV photon.
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The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are , , , and cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields.
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